We would try to investigate three referred locations in countries in Latin America and Africa, namely Bolivia, Sri Lanka and Nigeria. As part of our initial recommendation, this paper would be focusing its first part of the report to the country of Nigeria. Based on preliminary investigation done, Nigeria is being viewed as the most conducive and most advantageous among the three countries in this case study. All of the necessary issues and concerns would be tackled and be briefly discussed on the foregoing items.
Like any other sovereign country, labor policies in Nigeria are being controlled and monitored by the government. Labor union practices are allowed by the state, as part of the international community, Nigeria has signed and ratified the International Labor Organization's (ILO) convention on freedom of association and the creation of labor union. however, prior (military) rulers recognized a single central labor body, the Nigerian Labor Congress (NLC), thereby de-legitimizing other unions.
Except for members of the armed forces and selected employees essential by the government, Nigerian workers in all levels may join trade unions and strike. Employees essential to government operations include firefighters, police, employees of the central bank, the security printers (printers of currency, passports, and government forms), and customs and excise staff. Collective bargaining is widespread in many sectors of the economy. Nigerian law specifically the Nigerian Industrial Courts, an independent arm of the judiciary protects workers from retaliation by employers for labor activity.
In terms of the protection of Nigerian Children against child labor, Nigeria's 1974 labor decree prohibits employment of children under 15 years of age in commerce and industry and restricts other child labor to home-based agricultural or domestic work. The law further stipulates that no person under the age of 16 may be employed for more than eight hours per day. The decree allows the apprenticeship of youths under specific conditions Labor laws in Nigeria also enforce strict compliance on the safety of its workers.
Just compensation for injured workers and dependent survivors of those killed in industrial accidents are rigorously being imposed on employers. Cultural Attitude Towards Women and Children As in many ethnically diverse countries, women's role in Nigeria is based on ethnic and regional differences. Majority of the Nigerian women that are still secluded under Islamic beliefs and principles are commonly less educated and sometimes hindered from formal education. Most of urban Nigerian Women are working as stall vendors operating small stalls.
Even in elite families of the society, Nigerian women's presence in social gatherings and other functions are either non-existent or very controlled. However, in contemporary times Nigerian women's presence in modern society is rising but is still a long foreseeable future for Nigerian women's role in a country dominated by the principles of old of the male gender. Children are treated as a part of the minority of the society. As mentioned on labor laws being enforced by the government, children are allowed to work providing they are not below 16 years old.
In western nations the legal working age of children or minors are 18 and above, this fact just shows that opportunities for children to work is open at a younger age in Nigeria. At present, Nigerian fashion is greatly influenced by both Nigerian ethnic culture and western influence. The presence of diverse style in terms of influences has come a long way in Nigerian fashion. Many noted personalities in the country evolved as icon in the Nigerian fashion industry, many of them have international recognition.
Nigeria has designers like Maufechi, Divine, Monami, Kess Jabari, Meggito to mention a few. The presence of Nollywood, the cinematic center of Nigeria similar to that of Hollywood serves as a typical role model to the existing fashion statements in Nigeria. Opral Benson, an African fashion designer par excellence describes fashion as; "Fashion is continuously changing. You cannot compare the fashions of these days..... Fashion is something which is local, national and international.
In short, fashion all over the world is a quite dynamic phenomenon. Fashion trends evolves from ethnic to modern styles, rejuvenating the fashion of early years in Africa towards the influences from Europe and Western countries specifically Afro-American fashion statements from the US. Famous brands from western designers like Versace and Tommy Hill Figger is presently being adored by upper class society in Nigeria, thus only proving that blends in fashion is striving gracefully in the country. Nigeria being the most populated country in the African Continent is considered as a third world developing country.
Its people are ethnically divided and have some 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich diversity. According to Country Studies, US ; About 70 percent of all Nigerians were still living in farming villages in 1990, although the rural dwellers formed a shrinking proportion of the later force. It was among these people that ways of life remained deeply consistent with the past. Nigerian economy is at its recovery and development stage and is presently undergoing massive reforms to uplift the countries economic standing.
The importance of formal education has been one of the primary concerns of the Nigerian Federal Republic and has become the largest social program of the government. At present more than 47% of the age group of 5 to 14 years old have attended primary to secondary schools. The secondary level age-group (ages fifteen to twenty- four) represented approximately 16 percent of the entire population in 1985. English is the official mode of instruction above the secondary level of education. Federal Republic is the form of government of Nigeria.
Historically, Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 after a sixteen-year-long interruption by a corrupt and brutal series of military dictators and counter-coups. Corruption is still one of the worse problems that the government is facing. Nevertheless and as always in a third world government, new reforms are being undertaken to subdue art of this problem. The Club of Paris considers the economic reforms and policies of the present government under the leadership of President Olu?? gun ? basanj? is being considered strong and formidable.
With a positive outlook, it must be important to note that the prevailing advantageous situation existing in the Federal Government of Nigeria is in sum conducive and serves as a credible prospect to establish a boutique and a manufacturing plant. The existing labor laws of the country are favorable to the type of employment that the plant will need in its operations. The improving educational level of attainment and literacy rate of the prospective employees will be a key factor in streamlining plant and factory operations.
The countries demographics being the largest population in West Africa and social conditions as mentioned on previous case finding points out considerably fair in attaining production growth in terms of sales and distribution of primary clothing line. Government reform policies in its economy and foreign policies will trigger our company's goal to expand and export high quality products produced in the Nigerian based manufacturing plant. Last but not the least, the high fashion sense of Nigerians in terms of garments, in diverse influence and style will be a vast market for our products.
The presence of a moving industry like Hollywood will serve as a high level market trend setter that would provide consistent promotion of our clothing line. In summation, Nigeria will not only serve as a good place to establish a manufacturing plant but will also provide the company s a vast market to distribute our products. A country situated in central South America with the present Unity Government headed by President Evo Morales of the Movement Towards Socialism (MTS) Party. The country is highly dominated by indigenous people of Bolivia comprising almost 65% of its population.
Bolivia experienced several military government takeovers in the past 5 decades. In terms of Economy, Bolivia is one of the least developed countries in South America and remains to be the poorest among its neighboring nations. Around 65% of the countries population are considered agriculturally dependent and still lives in poverty. The social condition of Bolivia hinders its opportunity to grow as nation. With a large number of grievances coming from the majority of Bolivian indigenous people, ranging from issues like poverty, labor disputes, political issues among other things.
Bolivia is still experiencing traditional division of classes of which the working class remains to be in destitute. Political instability has been also a great factor in the slugging economy of the country. The presence of several political parties with contradicting policies and principles thwarts the countries emancipation from political turmoil. Disputes between labor and the state deepened under military rule. Bolivia was a country torn apart by regional, ethnic, class, economic, and political divisions.
In terms of education, the present negative standing of Bolivian Government delays the development of general education in the country. Data from US Country Studies on Bolivia detects; Dropout rates also remained extremely high. Only one-third of first graders completed the fifth grade, 20 percent started secondary school, 5 percent began their postsecondary studies, and just 1 percent received a university degree. Dropout rates were higher among girls and rural children. Only about 40 percent of rural youngsters continued their education beyond the third grade.
Since poverty is the primary problem of the country, the overall spending of an average family relatively allotted to basic necessities such as food and shelter. Overall the obstructing difficulties surrounding Bolivia's national predicament and dilemma have made our conclusion that the country is the least among the three case study countries to establish a manufacturing plant and boutique. A country founded in the midst of racial difficulties, diversified religion and relatively unstable political system.
Having a similar caste system as India, its mother nation, social divisions have had a direct and weighty impact on politics. These obstacles have produced several civil wars and created dent on the national standing of Sri Lanka for the past decades. Ethnic rivalries also add unstable issues among political parties. Unsound political situation and issues regarding security have been a part of the struggle of the economic standing of Sri Lanka. Violence has continued to dominate its criminal and justice system.
Enforcement of labor laws and policies are still being considered by analyst as inconsistent. Labor unions are highly politicized with a variety of organizations representing different political parties. With regards to factory and manufacturing operations, certain holidays, cultural and practices such as the working time frame of women deter and delays production. Education, however, have been a primary concern of the government. In the modern educational system of Sri Lanka, within the last four decades the rate of literacy went up to 46%, the number of schools increased by 50%.
Teachers place second as part of the government workforces next to the plantation workers. With some positive notes on the standing of Sri Lanka, still the matter of security risk and political and social class instability contributes highly to the reason why our team rejected the country as a prospective location to set up and establish future manufacturing plant and boutique for our new clothing line. If such conditions and issues would be addressed in the near future, Sri Lanka might be considered and be included in future studies.