After Rosa Parks is arrested, MILK rallies the black community to do this. This seriously hurt the bus companies. This lasted more than a year, and ended in 56 when the SC declared segregated buses unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education 1951 ; (SC) Marshall argues, wins this one. Unanimous vote under the Earl Warren court that "separate but equal" is a false doctrine.
Little Rock Central High School 1957; 9 black students trying to go to school needed to be defended by federal troops Southern Christian Leadership Conference MILK and nearly 100 other black ministers form this organization in 1957 to encourage nonviolent protest to provoke segregationists and win support from moderate southern whites.
Although it got more blacks to support the movement, it failed to spark controversy or get white sympathy Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee Created by sit-ins; lack of patience resulted in their downfall Interstate Highway Act of 1 956 1 956; more effective; Jobs and benefits (trucking, gasoline, automobile); deprived passenger trains, decreased air quality, robbed downtowns of business due to shopping outlets First Secretary of the Soviet Union- "premier"- was in attempts to negotiate towards conciliation with Eisenhower but 13-2 scandal made such attempts void Geneva Conference After Vietnam fell to Nationalists; split Vietnam at the 17th parallel; elections 2 years later to Join them 1955; Eisenhower & Khrushchev; "Open Skies"; Khrushchev thought it was an American ply for Dulles and rejected the idea Battle of Dine Been PH 1954; French corned Indochina; French asked for American support; America not involved Warsaw Pact 1955; Soviet Union reacted to Anta's addition of West Germany, protecting its Communist satellites Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries 960; control petroleum exports; controlled Western countries Sputnik 1957; Soviets; Part I small, PART II dog displaying Soviet superiority; provided Communism with credential; maybe intercontinental ballistic missiles; created missile gap, NASA, and ENDED National Defense and Education Act 1958; increase education to compete with the Soviets; million in form of scholarships U-2 Spy plane incident The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U. S. Denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U. S. S. R. Reduced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Fidel Castro usurped power from Batista regime by guerilla warfare, US unable to execute effective coup, became military dictator Betty Friedman Feminists who published the Feminine Mystique 1963; modern women's rights movement to break away from suburban housewife life and to deal with struggles due to sexism United States rock singer whose many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music (1935-1977) Chapter 39: The Stormy Sixties John F. Kennedy The thirty-fifth United States President who represented the state of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat, and in the U. S. Senate from 1953 until 1961.
Events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War. He was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. "New Frontier" The campaign program advocated by JEFF in the 1960 election. He promised to revivalist the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights. Berlin Wall In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989. Massive Retaliation" Dulles; nuclear bombs "Flexible Response" the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons Bay of Pigs In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure. Cuban Missile Crisis the 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba Freedom Riders Both black and white Americans that took to riding public transportation in the deep south to demand that the Boonton v. Virginia verdict be upheld. This resulted in many busses being attacked held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress.
Martin Luther King gave his famous "l have a dream... " Speech. 250,000 people attended the rally Civil Rights Act of 1964 This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places. "Great Society' President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education. 'War on Poverty" Waged by Johnny's Great Society programs that presented a classic liberal platform. Civil and voting rights acts - Public school funding?when the rich moved to the suburbs all the poverty and squalor remained in the cities, destroying the tax base which of course had negative effects on public education - Medicare and Medicaid - National endowment for arts and humanities (PBS) - Clean air and water quality acts - Endangered species preservation act (1966) Affirmative Action policies of the government aimed at increasing access to Jobs, schooling, and opportunities to people previously discriminated against... Bake vs.. Board of Regents Gulf of Tontine Resolution Congress gave up its war making powers to the President in this resolution which Johnson himself called "Grandma's night shirt, a tool to cover everything. Medicare -available to all elderly Americans regardless of need -form of federal welfare assistance -assisted medical community because the fed paved all fees Medicaid extended federal medical assistance to welfare recipients and other indigent people of all ages Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed discrimination in the rental or purchase of homes and a broad range of other housing related transactions Passed when LB] was president, outlawed poll taxes. Freedom Summer 1964; Blacks and whites going to polling places to ensure that the law is being enforced and blacks do have the right to vote. This resulted in much violence in the south including murders, battery, etc. Malcolm X spread ideas of black nationalism. Disagreed w/ both the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement. Minister of the nation of SIAM. Rejected his original name because it was his family's slave name Systoles Carmichael Founder of "Black Power" "Black Power" the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. T urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business. Domino Theory the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control opposed the Vietnam War and believed the United States should withdraw its forces from Vietnam. Hawks supported U. S. Involvement in the Vietnam War and believed America should increase military force to win the war.
Et Offensive Et: the first day of the Vietnamese New Year -communist forces launched an enormous attack on American strongholds through- UT Vietnam -one of the first televised battles, revealed brutality of war, great effect on election of 1968 -Walter Coronate -Democrats Criticizing Johnson Chicago Democratic Convention 1968 -Tons of protesting and violence -Humphrey received nomination Counterculture Drugs are generally harmless social relaxants and as for sex, if it feels good, do it. Students for a Democratic Society Student group opposed to militarism and racism; called for "participatory democracy. " George Wallace Once governor of Alabama, a segregationist that ran as the candidate of the American Independent Party in 1968 and won five states in the South.